Sunday, December 8, 2019

Burden and Trends in Human Papillomavirus -

Question: Discuss about the Burden and Trends in Human Papillomavirus. Answer: Introduction Vaccination is a immunization technique that has been used by the medical practitioners to provide immunization to some of the most common diseases. Children after their birth are given immunization against some of the most common diseases to which they are vulnerable, some of the vaccines are given to the children so that they get lifelong resistance to those diseases. Vaccination is the administration of vaccines that are given to the individuals with the help of injections. Vaccines helps children to be safe from harmful diseases. Although there are certain side effects of the vaccines that makes is gaining a lot of criticism. Thesis statement: Vaccines provides immunization to the children and keeps them safe from many harmful diseases like, Tetanus, Measles, Pertusis and Chicken Pox. Vaccination is a method that is used in medical treatment, in this method individuals are given acquired immunity for any particular disease. Vaccination contains an agent that is similar to microorganisms that attacks the human body and causes disease. Vaccines are made from the weak or dead microbe or it can be made from its toxins or the proteins that are on the surface. The immune system of the human being has been given vaccine is stimulated for the identification of the disease causing threat and destroying it. There are two types of vaccines, prophylactic and the other one is therapeutic. Prophylactic vaccines are used for the diseases that might affect the individual in future, it is used against a specific pathogen. Therapeutic vaccines are still being investigated, an example of this can be cancer vaccines. Vaccination is process of administration of vaccines, which was coined from Variolae vaccine, which is small pox of the cow, the term was coined by Edward Jenner who is a famous biologist and the inventor of Vaccines. He used the term in the year 1798 in his work Inquiry into the Variole Vaccine Known as the Cow Pox, where in his findings it can be used against the attack of small pox. It is most commonly used for the immunization of children so that they can be kept safe from many harmful diseases like poliomyelitis, Diptheria, Chicken Pox, tetanus, pertusis, Measles, Hepatitis and many more. As per the reports of World health Organization, there are licensed vaccines for treatment of twenty-five infections. Since they are provide immediate actions and life long immunizations, most of the medical practitioners still use vaccination for immunizing children (Chervenak et al.). Opposing view discussion The reason behind argument against the usage of vaccines is that many children are allergic to certain elements that are present in the vaccines, for children the process of vaccination is quite painful and they fall sick for a day or two. The process of vaccination involves the use of injections, with the help of syringes the vaccine is injected in to the body of the child. There are two methods of injected one is intra-venous and the the other is intra-muscular. For children it being argued that both the methods are not appropriate. In many countries including India now intramuscular injections for polio is not used rather polio drops are being used (Jemal, Ahmedin, et al.). The marks left by the BCG vaccines are prominent for lifetime. The method was prevalent since eighteenth century (Aaby et al.). Australia suspended the flu virus in April 2010 for the children who are below the age of five years (Michael, Charles et al.). Many children after they were given the vaccination were admitted to the hospital with symptoms of febrile convulsions or they get reacted from other vaccines within hours of the vaccination. In UK chicken pox vaccinations are practiced because it causes any health related issues (Chervenak et al.). There may be few instances where the use of vaccination has been adversely affecting the children but the method in most of the cases there are 100 percent success results of vaccination. Except of mild fever there are not much side effects to the vaccines that are given to the infants after their birth. Till now vaccination is the most effective technique for immunization in small children (Chervenak et al.). Conclusion Vaccination is the most commonly technique used by the medical practitioners because it is safe in most of the cases and is quick. It provides lifelong immunization to the children. The reason for the criticism is, it is a very painful technique and few incidents have been reported where the side effects of certain vaccines were major. References Aaby, Peter, Henrik Ravn, and Christine S. Benn. "The WHO review of the possible nonspecific effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine."The Pediatric infectious disease journal35.11 (2016): 1247-1257. Chervenak, Frank A., Laurence B. McCullough, and Robert L. Brent. "Professional responsibility and early childhood vaccination."The Journal of pediatrics169 (2016): 305-309. Jemal, Ahmedin, et al. "Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 19752009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus (HPV)associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels."JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute105.3 (2013): 175-201. Michael, Charles A., et al. "An evaluation of community perspectives and contributing factors to missed children during an oral polio vaccination campaignKatsina State, Nigeria."The Journal of infectious diseases210.suppl_1 (2014): S131-S135.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

New and Old Wars Comparison

The argument that there are â€Å"New wars† dissimilar to older forms of warfare is not only generalist, but also not supported by existing scholarly and objective literature on the subject. According to Mary Kaldor, â€Å"New Wars† differ from older forms of warfare in their goals, methods of implementation and financing.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on New and Old Wars Comparison specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I believe, and will show objective analysis in the subsequent paragraphs, that the only difference between â€Å"New Wars† and older types of warfare exists in the manner of financing; however, the goals and methods of implementation of warfare have remained the same throughout the existence of warfare. In Kaldor’s view, the goals of the â€Å"New Wars† are to increase economic gain and impose identity politics â€Å"which is inherently exclusive and tends towards fra gmentation† (2006). Identity politics involves a â€Å"claim to power on the basis of a particular identity† (Kaldor, 2006). The imposition of identity politics in â€Å"New wars† results in the fragmentation of communities and massive resettlement of populations and refugee movement (for example the aftermath of genocide), so much that the movement of these refuges becomes not a by-product of war, but a central goal of it. Concerning the methods of implementation of these â€Å"New wars†, Kaldor is of the view that during the last decades of the twentieth century, a new type of organized violence that incorporated war, organized violence, and human rights violations emerged. This includes the â€Å"privatization of violence† (Kaldor, 2006) creating a scenario where the instruments and means of war are not held by the state but by War loads, criminal gangs and police forces within a particular state. On the issue of financing these â€Å"New warsâ € , Kaldor argues that the state no longer mobilizes finances for the wars, but – especially in weak Third world governments – the fighting units finance themselves through plunder, hostage taking and the black market, or independently through trafficking in humans, dealing in drugs and arms trade.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On this matter, as stated in the introduction, I concur with Kaldor’s argument that the only difference between â€Å"New wars† and older types is in the modality of financing. To counter kaldor’s theory concerning the goals and implementation methods of the â€Å"New wars†, the first counter-argument concerns the matter of goals of the war. Economic gain has always been the paramount objective of wars, and is not a feature exclusive to â€Å"New wars†. More scrutiny and analysis of wars in con temporary times by â€Å"academics, policy analysts, and politicians† (Newman, 2004, p.180) has served to highlight the wars, bringing out deeper dynamics of the wars, but the main objectives like economic gain have always been present. Even the contemporary factor of multinationals selling weapons to the warring parties serves the same purpose – profiting from war. Furthermore, Identity politics and wars based on fragmenting the society along the lines of race, ethnicity, and religion are as old as war itself. The Armenian genocide of World War I and the Holocaust of World War II are prime examples. The Rwandan genocide of 1994, a supposed â€Å"New War†, has similar features with the two previous genocides, which according to Kaldor, are old types of warfare. In conclusion, I have presented Kaldor’s â€Å"New Wars† theory, identifying its goals, methods and financing. I have argued against its goals and methods, focusing on the argument that both goals and methods can be found throughout history in older forms of warfare. Various violent conflicts, from the present and past, have been addressed and an analysis of the Rwandan genocide, the holocaust, and the Armenian genocide posed. Moreover, the role of the media and advances in information has been analyzed to show that just because there is much more analysis and discussion about wars nowadays does not necessarily make them ‘new’.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on New and Old Wars Comparison specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Kaldor, M. (2006). New and Old Wars, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity. Newman, E. (2004). The ‘New Wars’ debate: A historical perspective is needed. Security Dialogue vol. 35(2) 173-189. This essay on New and Old Wars Comparison was written and submitted by user Hezekiah Burt to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The Best IB History Notes and Study Guide for SL

The Best IB History Notes and Study Guide for SL/HL SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you want to do well on the IB History exam, you'll need to have a solid set of notes to study from. This can be difficult though if you're missing notes or feel like some of your own notes don't cover certain topics in enough depth. Luckily, we're here to help! We’ve assembled the best FREE online IB History notes into this complete study guide. What's the Format of the IB History Exam? The IB History course was completely updated in 2017. Now, there are five prescribed subjects for SL and HL: Military leaders Conquest and its impact The move to global war Rights and protest Conflict and intervention Your teacher will choose one that you'll cover, and you'll be tested on this for paper 1 (one hour in length). There is also a list of twelve world history topics. For paper 2 (1.5 hours), you'll cover two of these: Society and economy (750-1400) Causes and effects of medieval wars (750-1500) Dynasties and rulers (750-1500) Societies in transition (1400-1700) Early Modern states (1450-1789) Causes and effects of Early Modern wars (1500-1750) Origins, development and impact of industrialization (1750-2005) Independence movements (1800-2000) Evolution and development of democratic states (1848-2000) Authoritarian states (20th century) Causes and effects of 20th-century wars The Cold War: superpower tensions and rivalries (20th century) If you're taking IB History HL, you'll also have a final paper (Paper 3) that is 2.5 hours and will cover one of the four Depth Studies: History of Africa and the Middle East History of the Americas History of Asia and Oceania History of Europe If you're interested in taking a look at the entire IBO IB History Guide, you can find it as a .pdf here. How to Use This IB History Study Guide If you’re hoping for help on one subject, use Command + F to search this guide for specific IB History notes about that subject. As an example, if you want to read about the Cold War, use Command + F to cue the search function. Then type â€Å"Cold War,† and it’ll bring up all of the study materials for the Cold War. I separate the resources into: Quick reference: one-page summary of material if you just need a quick refresher. Longer notes: notes (generally 3-10 pages) if you need more of an in-depth explanation. Flashcards: online quizzes of key terms. Common Study Mistakes for IB History SL/HL Two common mistakes are: Trying to ignore the topics you didn’t comprehend from your teacher’s lesson. If you didn’t understand it in class, you need to find additional assistance through this IB History study guide or tutoring. You're still going to be tested over this material whether you understood it in class or not! Only trying to learn the material a week or two before the IB papers. There is too much history to learn- one or two weeks will not be enough time to learn it (that's why IB History SL/HL is spread over a year or two). The best solution is keeping up in class and studying the material throughout the year. Current IB History Guides Because IB History was so recently updated, there aren't that many current notes and study guides, but we've found the best available. These guides follow the syllabus of the current version of IB History. If you are studying the same topics these notes cover, they are a great resource to use because they hit all or most of the main topics you need to know to be well prepared for the IB History exam. There are guides that cover multiple topics as well as guides that cover a single topic. Multi-Topic Guides and Overviews The History Revision guide contains in-depth notes on several IB History topics. These are: Prescribed Subjects: Move to Global War World History Topics: Authoritarian States and the Cold War HL Topics: History of Asia and Oceania IB History Duck covers similar topics. This guide focuses primarily authoritarian leaders such as Hitler, Mao, and Stalin, as well as the Cold War, histories of China, the USSR, and Imperial Japan. The Student Room has a plethora of resources for you. Just keep in mind that notes for the 2017 syllabus are mixed in with information from earlier exams, so make sure you're accessing and studying the correct material. IB Revision Notes offers in-depth, thorough notes on major topics including dictators, Imperial Russia, WWI, WWII, and the Spanish Civil War. Finding what you need might take a little digging, but it's worth the effort! The teacher-run website IB History of the Americas addresses SL and HL topics, provides paper rubrics, and has tons of helpful PowerPoints covering information from most IB History units. While light on content, this document provides an outline of each of the major units, including the information you'll touch on in order to write Paper 2. Single Topic Guides These are notes on single topics that you'll cover on the IB syllabus. World History Topics: Conquest and its Impacts Handout covering topics you should know World History Topics: Move to Global War Move to Global War unit outline Move to Global War Prezi notes Move to Global War longer notes World History Topics: Rights and Protest Rights and Protest general overview Rights and Protest PowerPoint notes Rights and Protest US Civil Rights overview Rights and Protest longer notes Rights and Protest complete unit World History Topics: Conflict and Intervention Conflict and Intervention general overview Conflict and Intervention workbook Conflict and Intervention Rwanda flash cards World History Topics: Societies in Transition Societies in Transition Prezi World History Topics: Causes and Effects of Modern Wars Causes and Effects of Modern Wars workbook World History Topics: Independence Movements Independence Movements longer notes Independence Movements Flashcards World History Topics: Evolution and Development of Democratic States Evolution and Development of Democratic States overview World History Topics: Authoritarian States Authoritarian states general overview Authoritarian states longer notes World History Topics: Causes and Effects of 20th Century Wars Causes and Effects of 20th Century Wars general overview Causes and Effects of 20th Century Wars longer notes Causes and Effects of 20th Century Wars workbook World History Topics: The Cold War Origins of the Cold War unit outline Origins of the Cold War event overview Origins of the Cold War longer notes HL Depth Studies: IB History of the Americas History of the Americas general overview History of the Americas longer notes HL Depth Studies: History of Asia and Oceania History of China and Oceania general overview History of China and Oceania longer notes HL Depth Studies: History of Europe History of Europe longer notes Past IB History Guides These notes are based on the older (pre-2017) version of IB History. They won't fit the syllabus you're currently following in class, but since the two versions cover many similar concepts, they can still be useful for learning more about a specific topic. Just be sure not to use them as your main study resource because they may not focus on the exact same areas you're expected to know. Multiple Topics The Student Room has notes on dozens of IB History topics and can be useful if you need to brush up on facts for a specific place and time period. Peacemaking, Peacekeeping - International Relations 1918-36 Quick reference: 1.1 Aims of the participants and peacemakers: Wilson and the fourteen points 1.2 Terms of the Paris Peace Treaties 1919-20: Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevre 1.3 The geopolitical and economic impact of the treaties on Europe and the mandate system 1.4 Enforcement of the provisions of the treaties: US isolationism, the retreat from the Anglo-American Guarantee, Disarmament-Washington, London and Geneva Conferences 1.5 The League of Nations: effects of the absence of major powers, the principles of collective responsibility, and early attempts at peacekeeping (1920-25) 1.6 The Ruhr Crisis (1923), Locarno and the Locarno Spring 1.7 Depression and threats to international peace and collective security, Manchuria (1931 to 1933) and Abyssinia (1935 to 1936) Longer notes: The Peace Treaties after World War One The League of Nations in the 1920s The Wall St. Crash / Depression The League of Nations in the 1930s Communism in Crisis 1976–89 Quick reference: 2.1 The struggle for power following the death of Mao Zedong, Hua Guofeng, the reemergence of Deng Xiaoping and the defeat of the Gang of Four 2.2 China under Deng Xiaoping, economic policies and the Four Modernizations 2.3 China Under Deng Xiaoping, Political Changes And Their Limits, Culminating In The Demonstrations In Tiananmen Square 2.4 Domestic and foreign problems of the Brezhnev era, economic and political stagnation, Afghanistan Longer notes: The Cold War c.1945-55 The Cold War c.1955-91 The Korean War c.1950-53 Causes, Practices and Effects of Wars Longer notes: World War One Causes of WW1 Course / Effects WW1 The Peace Treaties German Involvement in Spanish Civil War Causes of the Chinese Civil War Causes of WW2 The Cold War Democratic States- Challenges and Responses Longer notes: Weimar Germany Origins and Development of Authoritarian and Single-Party States Longer notes: Mao Stalin Hitler Pinochet Tsarist / Revolutionary Russia Stalin's USSR Additional Stalin's USSR materials Hitler's Germany The Cold War Longer notes: Cold War Study Guide Sample Cold War Questions Cold War Document Chart The Korean War c.1950-53 Aspects of the History of the Americas Longer notes: United States Civil War: Causes, Course and Effects 1840-1877 Emergence of the Americas in Global Affairs 1880-1929 Political Developments in the Americas after the Second World War 1945-79 The Cold War and the Americas Civil Rights and Social Movements in America Aspects of the History of Asia and Oceania Longer notes with videos Aspects of the History of Europe and the Middle East #1: The French Revolution and Napoleon Longer notes #2: Unification and Consolidation of Germany and Italy Longer notes #3: The Ottoman Empire #4: Western and Northern Europe 1848-1914 #5: Imperial Russia, Revolutions, Emergence of Soviet State 1853-1924 Longer notes: Tsarist and Revolutionary Russia to 1924 Longer notes: Alexander II Longer notes: Alexander III Longer notes: Nicholas II #6: European Diplomacy and the First World War 1870-1923 Longer notes: Causes of WW1, Course / Effects WW1, the Peace Treaties #7: War and Change in the Middle East 1914-49 Longer notes #8: Interwar Years: Conflict and Co-operation 1919-39 Longer notes: The Peace Treaties after World War One Longer notes: The League of Nations in the 1920s Longer notes: The Wall St. Crash / Depression Longer notes: The League of Nations in the 1930s Longer notes: The Spanish Civil War #9: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924-2000 Longer notes: Stalin's USSR Khrushchev and Brezhnev Hitler's Germany The Cold War c.1945-55 Causes for the Collapse of Communism in Europe #10: The Second World War and Post-War Western Europe 1939-2000 #11: Post-War Developments in the Middle East 1945-2000 Longer notes #12: Social and Economic Developments in Europe and the Middle East Longer notes: European Option What’s Next? Looking for more practice material for IB History? Then you'll definitely want to delve into our complete collection of free and official past IB history papers. Interested in brushing up on some of your historical knowledge? Read about the Platt Amendment, checks and balances in the US government (as well as how the executive branch checks the judicial branch), and lighthouse keeper Ida Lewis. Alternatively, boost your esoteric knowledge by learning about the history of the three-hole punch and the real story of David Ghantt and the Loomis Fargo heist. Finally, you can get practice materials for other IB classes on our blog: Every IB Biology Past Paper Available: Free and Official Every IB Business and Management Past Paper Available: FREE and Official Where to Find IB Chemistry Past Papers - Free and Official Every IB Economics Past Paper Available: Free and Official Every IB English Past Paper: Free and Official The Complete IB Extended Essay Guide: Examples, Topics, and Ideas Every IB Geography Past Paper Available: Free and Official Every IB Math Past Paper: Free and Official Where to Find IB Physics Past Papers - Free and Official Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Friday, November 22, 2019

Love Song to a Dictionary

Love Song to a Dictionary Love Song to a Dictionary Love Song to a Dictionary By Maeve Maddox Most writers of English in every part of the world acknowledge the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) as a reliable reference to settle questions of spelling, pronunciation, and usage. Today computers are used to organize, store, and supplement the online Second Edition of the OED at the rate of 4,000 new words a year. But the OED had its beginnings long before computers made the lexicographers work easier. It took 120 keyboarders working six years to key in the more than 350,000,000 handset characters of the First Edition from which the Second Edition derives. The First Edition, compiled and printed the old-fashioned way, required numerous editors, thousands of volunteer readers, millions of slips of paper, and 70 years to achieve completion. But these are nothing but dry statistics. For a glimpse of the human side of the mighty OED, read Simon Winchesters The Professor and the Madman. Subtitled A Tale of Murder, Insanity, and the Making of the Oxford English Dictionary, Winchesters book is an instructive example of narrative nonfiction as well as a fascinating read. It tells the story of James Murray (the professor) and W.C. Minor (the madman). Murray took over the editorship of the OED in 1879 and remained at the job until his death in 1915. He guided the dictionary from A-T. Minor was a former American army doctor incarcerated from 1872-1910 in the Broadmoor hospital for the criminally insane. He contributed thousands of the quotations that illustrate usage in the OED entries. Minor killed an Englishman, but escaped execution by reason of insanity. Because of his personal wealth and usually mild behavior, he was given special privileges, such as having two rooms in a cell block with a pleasant view. He fitted one of the rooms as a library and collected old books. When Professor Murray sent out a call in 1879 for volunteers to contribute illustrative quotations to the OED, Minor responded. He applied himself to a systematic reading regimen and earned Murrays attention and respect. Winchesters embroideries and speculations are sometimes a little over the top. He waxes romantic as he commiserates with Minors victims and speculates on the possible causes of Minors mental condition. Overall, however, The Professor and the Madman is an excellent use of research to create a non-fiction book that is hard to put down. It casts a reference book we take for granted in a new light. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Book Reviews category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:50 Incorrect Pronunciations That You Should AvoidAcronym vs. InitialismPersonification vs. Anthropomorphism

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Why can't pioneering innovative companies sustain their first mover Essay

Why can't pioneering innovative companies sustain their first mover advantages - Essay Example The breakthrough product for this Canadian company has remained to be the BlackBerry (Sweeny 2009). However, the arrival of iPhone in the market has overturned everything for Research in Motion leaving the company struggling to cope with the fast follower’s challenge. Rivals such as Google and Apple which performed well in the market have led to a downward performance in the company’s stock prices. Apple first launched iPhone, a device which took a dominant position in the market and more so in the consumer segment and is now taking leads in the corporate market where BlackBerry’s were dominant.... That is, the company has recorded ups and downs of 15% over the last 3 years when it comes to its share prices. This is because of the existence of stiff competitors in the market competing for the same market share with Research in Motion Ltd. The ups and downs in the share prices of Research in Motion Ltd may also be attributed to consumption of its market share by the competitors and especially in the consumer market. The introduction of new and improved products in the market by the competitors has made BlackBerry’s less competitive making RIM Ltd loose its significant number of consumers. Source: When the BlackBerry’s become less competitive, the stocks also become less competitive a situation which has led to the reduction in stock prices. The increased competition and a reduction in market share have led to a reduction in the total volume of stocks traded in each trading day. Analysts also attributed the drop in stock pr ices in the company to the increased prices of the new BlackBerry mobile phones, a price which is too high for the emerging markets. With the increased prices, the company has been having huge problems attracting customers away from Androids by Google and iPhone platforms by Apple Inc. Source: 2. First mover advantages of Research in Motion’s BlackBerry BlackBerry was the first brand to be introduced in the market with mobile email which was highly compatible with the corporate requirements. BlackBerry then become the market leader and has continued being the market leader. BlackBerry was the brand in the market to integrate mobile communication, corporate email and internet capabilities

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 15

Personal Statement Example This prompted me to transfer to the United States. Moving to the United States was an easy choice because it is one of the most developed countries in the world. In addition, the country has one of the highest rated education systems in the world, with excellent teaching and learning facilities. The United States also has one of the best business environments in the world, with infrastructure and credit facilities available to support all types of business. In addition, the University of California and the California State University are one of the most prestigious colleges in the world. In terms of schooling and future job prospects, I am sure that coming to the United States is the best decision I have made in my life. I have met many people here, and most of them have influenced me in a very positive way. I have always been interested in business. In fact, it is more than an interest; it is a passion. I hope to establish my own company in the United States and live the American dream. I am ready to put in the hours to make this dream possible. My passion for business is evident in the fact that I started managing my first business when I was only fourteen years old. My family owns a business and I was determined to contribute towards its success. I also wanted to self-actualize myself by translating my passion into hard work and tangible results. Therefore, I helped my father run the business and gained invaluable experience in this regard. I was very excited to manage this business because it was located just across my school, giving it a lot of attention and customers. My fellow students always came to the store and admired the work I did. However, when I went to school in the United States I left the store in my father’s management. During my time working at the store, my f ather informed me that revenues increased by 10% because of my ability to influence my colleagues in school to buy more products from the store. The

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Darren Shan Biography Essay Example for Free

Darren Shan Biography Essay Although Shan always wanted to be a writer, it was only in his teenage years that he began writing in his spare time for fun (before that, he only wrote stories if they were for homework). He bought his first typewriter when he was 14, and never looked back, knocking out loads of short stories and comic scripts, and making false starts on several books, which he never completed. Shan was 17 when he finished his first novel. Although it was never published, he relished the writing experience, and found himself focusing more on novels in the coming years, leaving behind the short-story format. For the next several years, sandwiched between university and work, he wrote an average of one book a year, experimenting with different ideas, genres, lengths and styles. When he started writing full-time, his output shot up to 5 to 6 books per year! But that has dropped back to 2 to 3 recently, due to all the travelling around he’s been doing to promote sales of his books. All of these early books were adult-oriented. Although Shan quite liked the idea of writing a children’s book one day, he considered himself an adult writer first and foremost. In fact, Shan’s initial breakthrough was with an adult book, in 1999. In January 2000, his first children’s book, Cirque du Freak, which he’d written as a fun side-project, was published. The first book in a series titled The Saga of Darren Shan (or Cirque du Freak, as it’s known in America), it attracted rave reviews and an ever-growing army of fans hungry to learn more about vampires which were quite unlike any that anyone had ever seen before! Shan loved writing for children so much, that for the next several years he focused almost exclusively on his books for younger readers. First, he wrote a total of 12 books about vampires. He quickly followed up his vampiric saga with The Demonata, a series about demons. Running to ten books in total, The Demonata cemented Shan’s place in the UK as the Master Of Children’s Horror, and saw him score his first UK #1 bestseller. He also wrote a one-off short book, called Koyasan, for Wold Book Day in the UK. There was a very successful manga adaptation of Shan’s vampire series, drawn by the Japanese artist, Takahiro Arai. It was originally serialized in Japan, but collected volumes are now on sale in the USA, UK and other countries. The books have topped adult bestseller charts in Hungary, Japan and Taiwan. In total, Shan’s books have sold close to 15 million copies worldwide! The movie rights to Cirque Du Freak were bought by Universal, and the first movie (which combines elements from the first three books in the series) was released on October 23rd, 2009, starring newcomer Chris Massoglia as Darren Shan, along with a wide array of established stars such as Josh Hutcherson, John C Reilly, Salma Hayek, Willem Defoe and Ken Watanabe. The movie was called Cirque Du Freak: The Vampire’s Assistant.