Saturday, March 21, 2020

Agencias para trabajar en cruceros y sueldos de empleos

Agencias para trabajar en cruceros y sueldos de empleos Los cruceros que inician sus viajes en un puerto de Estados Unidos  son una gran fuente de empleo de todo tipo de profesiones y trabajos. Unas 20 millones de personas se embarcan cada aà ±o en este tipo de cruceros para disfrutar sus vacaciones y para servirles las navieras recurren a trabajadores (tripulantes)  de todo tipo de nacionalidades. Agencias para trabajar en cruceros de EE.UU. Entre las principales empresas de cruceros que inician o finalizan sus viajes en  un puerto de Estados Unidos destacan, entre otros, Carnival Cruises Line, Celebrity Cruises, Cunard Line, Disney Cruise Line, Holland America Line, MSC Cruises USA, Norwegian Cruise Line, Princess Cruises. Para conseguir un trabajo en un crucero en ocasiones es posible contactar directamente con la empresa pero frecuentemente delegan el trabajo de seleccionar empleados a agencias con las que trabajan y que pueden estar ubicadas en Estados Unidos o en otros paà ­ses. Las siguientes agencias no cobran dinero a la persona que busca trabajo a cambio de informacià ³n, de entrevistarlo o de embarcarlo. Su negocio est en escoger buenos trabajadores y la empresa de crucero les paga por ello. Por otro lado, algunas pueden brindar cursos para adquirir conocimientos para el trabajo o para mejorar el idioma inglà ©s. Por su ubicacià ³n destacan las siguientes agencias: Argentina: Cauw International Group: Infocauwing.comCrew Cruise: crewcruisegmail.comGlobal Recruitment Agency: holaglobalrecruitment.com.arInternational Ship Management Agency: 54-11-43-43-4410 Colombia: Ibercoll S.AS. 571-2350023The Seven Seas Group Costa Rica: The Seven Seas Group Espaà ±a: MobicacrewSovren Crew. 34-971-677-375The Seven Seas Group Estados Unidos: The Apollo GroupCTI Recruitment and Placement Agency. 1-954-568-5900. Infocti-usa.com Guatemala: Guatemala Seamans Service Agency: 502-7948- 2016. crewmember.gt.lorinissaggmail.com Honduras: Honduras Seamans Office Srl Mà ©xico: Mexicrew: applymexicrew.comPersohotel International. 988-892-4474. infoempleocruceros.com.mx Panam: Panama Marine Services. 507-393-9281 Perà º: CRC Cruise Recruiting Consulting. (51-1) 521-1672. Informescrc-peru.com Tipos de empleos en cruceros Pueden encontrarse las siguientes categorà ­as de empleos en los cruceros: Oficiales, como capitn y ayudantes. Es muy comà ºn que todos los oficiales de un barco sean de la misma nacionalidad.   Personal encargado del mantenimiento y buen funcionamiento del barco, son lo que se conoce en inglà ©s como deck and engine room jobs. Las profesiones dentro de esta categorà ­a son muy variadas y requieren distinto tipo de conocimiento, por ejemplo: Mantenimiento (jefe y subordinados), jefe de seguridad, ingeniero jefe y subordinados, electricista, plomero (fontanero), etc. Empleados en labores de diversià ³n, comprende actividades tan dispares como instructores de natacià ³n y gimnasio, trabajadores de casino, guà ­as turà ­sticos, mà ºsicos, disc jockeys, anfitriones y artistas. En esta categorà ­a es muy comà ºn que se requiera tener como idioma materno el inglà ©s o hablarlo a nivel casi nativo. Trabajos relacionados con servicios, incluye desde personal de cocina y comedores a limpiadores de camarotes y empleados de las tiendas. Personal para el cuidado de los turistas, incluye desde mà ©dicos y enfermeras a peluqueras, masajistas y manicuristas, etc. Como regla general, en todos los cruceros el alojamiento y la comida es gratis para todos los miembros de la tripulacià ³n. Finalmente, los contratos suelen ser de unos seis meses, aunque frecuentemente se prorrogan. Sueldos medio de empleos en un crucero Los cruceros que salen o acaban su viaje en un puerto de EE.UU. suelen brindar a sus trabajadores salarios similares, segà ºn datos de, entre otros, Glassdoor e Indeed, son los siguientes: Oficiales: son  puestos de mayor responsabilidad y mejor pagados. Los salarios varà ­an segà ºn la posicià ³n y experiencia. Capitn: entre $6,000 y $10,000 al mesAyudantes del capitn: Entre $5,000 y $7,000 al mesPrimer oficial: Entre $4,000 y $5,000 al mes Profesionales encargados del mantenimiento y buen funcionamiento del barco.  Ejemplos de salarios medios: Oficial de seguridad: de $2,500 a $3,500Handyman  (mantenimiento). Entre $1,800 y $2,500 al mesAyudantes del handyman,  lo que se conoce en inglà ©s como able seaman y hacen labores bsicas de limpieza y reparacià ³n. Entre $1,500 y $1,800.Ingeniero jefe: Entre $5,500 y $8,500Electricista jefe: entre $3,000 y $4,000 al mesElectricista: Entre $2,000 y $2,400 al mesPlomero (fontanero): entre $1,600 y $2,400 Otros tripulantes Un buen nà ºmero de tripulantes contratados en un crucero trabajan en la cocina. Las posiciones son muy variadas, asà ­ como el conocimiento de inglà ©s que se exige y el nivel de experiencia. Los sueldos tambià ©n son muy diferentes. Algunos ejemplos: Chef: como mà ­nimo, $4,000 al mesSous Chef Ejecutivo: a partir de $3,800 al mesSous Chef: entre $3,400 y $5,800 al mes1er cocinero: aproximadamente $2,000  al mes2do cocinero: entre $1,600 y $2,200 al mes3er cocinero: a partir de los $1,400 al mes. Esta posicià ³n y las anteriores requieren un excelente conocimiento del idioma inglà ©sPersonal bsico de cocina: entre $900 y $1,200Personal de limpieza (dishwasher), entre $500 y $600 al mes. Estas dos à ºltimas posiciones pueden ser desempeà ±adas por personas con conocimiento muy bsico del inglà ©s. No se requiere experiencia.Personal de comedores, bares y cafeterà ­as que no tienen un buen conocimiento del inglà ©s o carecen de experiencia como apoyo a camareros,  preparacià ³n de snacks, etc. El sueldo se fija por contrato  suele ir entre los $350 a los $500 a la semana.Gerente de tiendas: a partir de $2,200 al mesVendedor en tienda: a partir de $1,400 al mes Tripulantes con salario y propinas (tips) Trabajan con los clientes y tienen un buen conocimiento verbal del inglà ©s. Tambià ©n es frecuente que para desempeà ±ar este tipo de empleo se pida experiencia en el puesto de trabajo o estudios que lo califiquen. Ejemplos promedio de salarios de propinas, que varà ­an grandemente segà ºn el tipo de barco y recorrido: Mesero/a de barra de bar (Bar Waiter): entre $1,000 y $2,500 al mesAsistente de mesero de comedor (Busboy): entre $1,500 y $3,000 al mesBarman: entre $1,500 y $3,000 al mesMesero/a (camarero) de comedor: $2,500 a $4,000 al mes Como regla general puede decirse que los salarios son superiores al salario mà ­nimo en Estados Unidos. Documentacià ³n para trabajar en un crucero Para trabajar en un crucero que inicia, acaba o viaje tocando un puerto de Estados Unidos es necesario tener un documento que autorice a trabajar. Los trabajadores extranjeros que no tienen una green card pueden solicitar una visa. Puede ser de dos tipos: la D, para miembros de un barco que toca EE.UU. y necesitan trabajar para el funcionamiento del mismo y la C1/D cuando el trabajador necesita ingresar a EE.UU. para embarcar en el crucero en el que va a trabajar. Finalmente, cabe destacar que los trabajadores en cruceros que son estadounidenses o tienen una tarjeta de residencia permanente pagan impuestos en EE.UU. Sin embargo, los extranjeros con visa C1/D no tienen que pagar impuestos en Estados Unidos, si bien hay excepciones en funcià ³n de acuerdos internacionales. Puntos Clave: Cà ³mo conseguir trabajo en un crucero y salarios medios  ¿Cà ³mo conseguir trabajo en un crucero que sale de un puerto de EE.UU.?: contactando directamente con la empresa (en algunos casos) o con una agencia que trabaja con dichas empresas. ¿Quà © no debe hacerse?: no debe pagarse a ninguna agencia por folletos, libros, entrevistas o por embarcar. ¿Es necesario hablar inglà ©s?: sà ­, pero el nivel que se exige depende del tipo de trabajo que se realiza. ¿Cul es el salario medio?: Hay grandes diferencias segà ºn el trabajo que se desempeà ±a. En general, incluso en los peor pagados el sueldo es superior al salario mà ­nimo en EE.UU. Adems, est incluido alojamiento y manutencià ³n y en muchos casos uniforme e incluso lavanderà ­a. ¿Quà © visa se necesita?: Si el crucero solo toca un puerto de EE.UU. es suficiente la visa D. Por el contrario, si es necesario viajar a EE.UU. para embarcarse en el barco en el que se va a trabajar es necesaria la visa C1/D. ¿Se pagan impuestos en EE.UU. si se tiene una visa C1/D?: como re gla general, no se pagan impuestos, salvo acuerdo internacional entre EE.UU. y el paà ­s de origen del trabajador. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Cuánto ganan las enfermeras en Estados Unidos

Cunto ganan las enfermeras en Estados Unidos En Estados Unidos, enfermerà ­a es una de las profesiones mejor pagadas y con mayor demanda de profesionales. Los salarios varà ­an segà ºn la especialidad, titulacià ³n, lugar de trabajo, aà ±os trabajados e, incluso, lugar de desempeà ±o laboral. Esta este artà ­culo se informa sobre cunto ganan de media las enfermeras en Estados Unidos, segà ºn datos de Medscape, Nurse Salary, PayScale y el Bureau de Estadà ­sticas Oficiales y teniendo en cuenta las tres grandes categorà ­as en las que se divide esta profesià ³n: LPN/LVP, tambià ©n conocidas como enfermeras vocacionalesRN, por las siglas en inglà ©s de Enfermeras RegistradasNP, por siglas en inglà ©s de Enfermeras Practicantes Finalmente, se especifican quà © documentos legales son necesarios para trabajar en Estados Unidos y quà © tipos de visa se pueden obtener para trabajar en el campo de la enfermerà ­a. Cunto ganan las LPN/LVP en Estados Unidos Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVP, por sus siglas en inglà ©s) y Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN, por sus siglas en inglà ©s) son el equivalente de lo que en muchos paà ­ses hispanohablantes se conoce como auxiliar de enfermerà ­a. Desde el punto de vista acadà ©mico, los LVN y LPN se caracterizan por no haber cursado estudios universitarios de licenciatura en este rubro, sin embargo, deben pasar el examen de que se conoce como NCLEX-PN para trabajar en cualquiera de los 50 estados de EE.UU., el Distrito de Columbia y los territorios de Guam, Samoa, Marianas e Islas Và ­rgenes Americanas. De hecho, es posible trabajar como LVP o LPN con sà ³lo cursado la high school –lo que en algunos paà ­ses se llama bachillerato, prepa o liceo–, y, adems, haber completado ciertos cursos tà ©cnicos. Pueden ocuparse de de curar heridas, baà ±ar y dar de comer a los enfermos, poner inyecciones y similares. En la actualidad, el salario medio anual de LVP y de LPN a tiempo completo es de $42.400 brutos, es decir, antes de descontar impuestos. Para los que trabajan a tiempo parcial el pago medio es de $20,30 por hora. Sin embargo, existen grandes diferencias segà ºn el tipo de trabajo que se realiza, conocimientos acadà ©micos adicionales, experiencia, etc. Entre los factores que determinan el salario se encuentra el lugar geogrfico en el que se trabaja. Asà ­, los estados en los que LVP y LPN comandan las mejores nà ³minas son Connecticut, Nevada y Alaska, con salarios anuales promedio superiores a $52.000 brutos. En el otro lado de la balanza se encuentran Virginia Occidental, Dakota del Sur y Alabama, donde los salarios son ms bajos para estos profesionales. Por regià ³n, el rea no metropolitana donde los salarios son ms altos en el rea del sureste de Alaska y el rea metropolitana con mejor salario es la conformada por San Francisco-San Mateo-Redwood, donde el salario bruto anual medio es de $60.550. En la actualidad hay ms de 718.000 LVP y LPN trabajando en Estados Unidos, siendo los estados de Texas, California, Nueva York, Florida y Ohio los que emplean un mayor nà ºmero. Salarios de Enfermeras Registradas (RN) en Estados Unidos La mayorà ­a de las enfermeras en Estados Unidos pertenecen a esta categorà ­a. Pueden empezar a trabajar con estudios universitarios medios, lo que equivale a un Associate ´s Degree en USA. Si tienen una licenciatura, (B.S. por sus siglas en inglà ©s)  ganan ms. En todo caso, para trabajar en Estados Unidos, en cualquiera de los 50 estados, Washington D.C.. y todos sus territorios excepto Puerto Rico, es necesario pasar el examen que se conoce como NCLEX-RN. La isla de Puerto Rico sigue su propio sistema de certificacià ³n, pero los profesionales puertorriqueà ±os que desean trabajar en uno de los 50 estados o en los otros territorios de la Unià ³n necesitan pasar dicho examen. En la actualidad, el salario medio anual bruto de una RN a tiempo completo es de $67.930, mientras que para las RN a tiempo parcial el pago medio por hora es de $32.66. California, Hawaii y Massachussets son los estados en los que los salarios son ms altos, superando de media los $90.000 anuales brutos. Por otro lado, en Iowa es donde se obtiene el peor salario, siendo la media de $52.540 brutos anuales para RN a tiempo completo. Por reas, la que comanda los mejores salarios para RN es el rea conformada por San Josà ©-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, en el estado de California, donde el ingreso bruto anual medio es de $122.990. En cuanto a las especialidades que ms ganan dentro de la categorà ­a de RN destacan de anestesias, cuidados crà ­ticos o Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos y tambià ©n las comadronas certificadas. Pero sin duda la especialidad mejor pagada entre las RN es la de enfermerà ­a anestesista registrada y certificada (CRNA, por sus siglas en inglà ©s). Han concluido estudios de maestrà ­a con especialidad en anestesias y han aprobado un examen de certificacià ³n nacional aunque cada estado puede establecer regulaciones adicionales. Adems, en muchos estados pueden trabajar sin estar bajo la supervisià ³n de un mà ©dico anestesista. Pueden hacer una labor muy similar a estos, pero le resultan ms baratas a los hospitales. Esta es una especialidad conocida por sus altos niveles de estrà ©s y largas horas de trabajo. El salario medio de un profesional CRNA es de $157.000, siendo el punto de entrada $105.000 y siendo el punto ms alto $242.000 anuales brutos. En Estados Unidos, la distribucià ³n entre hombres y mujeres CRNA es prcticamente igual, habiendo un poco ms de varones en total. Es una de las pocas reas en enfermerà ­a donde los hombres son tan numerosos. Salario enfermeras especializadas o Nurse Practitioner (NP) Las enfermeras especializadas, conocidas en inglà ©s como Nurse Practitioner o NP, han completado, como mà ­nimo, estudios de maestrà ­a en esa especialidad. En algunos estados pueden recetar y trabajar independientemente de un mà ©dico. En la actualidad, el salario medio anual bruto es de $91.540 para las NP a tiempo completo. en el supuesto de trabajar a tiempo parcial, el pago medio bruto por hora se sità ºa en $43,97. Las diferencias de sueldo son grande, dependiendo de la especializacià ³n. Las que ms cobran son las especialistas en cuidado de recià ©n nacidos, en psiquiatrà ­a (ARNP, por sus siglas en inglà ©s) y cuidado de ancianos (AGNP, por sus siglas en inglà ©s). En este à ºltimo caso, se prima con ms salario los conocimientos en mbitos mà ©dicos adicionales como diabetes o cuidados paliativos. Por geografà ­a, Alaska, Hawaii y Oregà ³n son los estados con los mejores salarios mientras que por reas, la metropolitana con sueldos ms altos en San Josà ©-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, en California, y en zona no rural el rea oriental del estado de Nuevo Mà ©xico. Por otro lado, los estados donde las NP reciben los salarios ms bajos son Illinois, Virginia Occidental y la ciudad de Washington D.C. Se estima que un total de 105.780 NP ejercen su profesià ³n en la actualidad en Estados Unidos, siendo California, Nueva York, Florida, Texas y Massachusetts los estados con ms trabajo. Visa para trabajar como enfermera/o a Estados Unidos Para trabajar legalmene en Estados Unidos es necesario tener una situacià ³n migratoria que permita hacerlo. Obviamente, los ciudadanos americanos pueden hacerlo, aunque en el caso de profesiones como la enfermerà ­a necesitan convalidar sus estudios si los han obtenido en otro paà ­s. Todos los que no son ciudadanos necesitan uno de estos tres documentos: tarjeta de residencia permanente, siendo vlida la que est sellada en el pasaporte permiso de trabajo,  que se dan en circunstancias muy concretas Visa de trabajo  que debe patrocinar el empleador En ocasiones, los empleadores estadounidenses pueden animarse a patrocinar una visa de trabajo. Las personas interesadas en explorar esta và ­a pueden consultar estas  10 agencias que buscan empresas que patrocinan y acompaà ±an a enfermeras extranjeras en el proceso de validar estudios y aprobar exmenes necesarios para poder trabajar en EU. En el caso de egresados en enfermerà ­a de nacionalidad mexicana siempre es particularmente de interà ©s consultar el enlace anterior ya que para ellos hay habilitado la visa TN para profesionales y la enfermerà ­a est incluida en el listado. Adems, todos los extranjeros sin importar nacionalidad pueden intentar buscar un patrocinador de una visa visas H-1B para profesionales. Si bien hay que tener en cuenta que cada aà ±o fiscal el nà ºmero de solicitudes para este tipo de visa supera al cupo disponible, por lo que se acaba determinando quià ©n gana la visa por loterà ­a. Si bien en este punto es conveniente destacar dos caracterà ­sticas de la visa H-1B. En primer lugar, las instituciones de investigacià ³n y educativas pueden patrocinar estas visas sin là ­mite anual en el nà ºmero. Por lo tanto, si se consigue un patrocinar de esta clase, podrà ­a obtenerse la visa en cualquier momento del aà ±o. En segundo lugar, los chilenos tienen reservado un nà ºmero de visas H-1B que sà ³lo ellos pueden utilizar. Como regla general, la oferta es superior a la demanda por lo que si se obtiene patrocinador y se cumplen todos los requisitos para obtener la visa, no habrà ­a, en principio, el problema de que se acabaron las visas H-1B para el aà ±o presente. Cuando mayor salario no equivale a mayor nivel de vida. El cobrar ms no siempre equivale a que se vive mejor ya que en Estados Unidos se pagan impuestos muchas veces ms altos que en el paà ­s de origen y adems las cosas son ms caras. Por esta razà ³n este  comparativo  salarial de 18 profesiones en 8 paà ­ses teniendo en cuenta diferencias en canasta alimentaria puede resultar de interà ©s para clarificar la situacià ³n. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Interview Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

Interview - Essay Example of the patients sat at the waiting room while some who seemed weaker than the rest preferred to sit or lie on the grass outside, while waiting for their turn to see the doctor. I had just got to an area marked ‘Emergency Parking’ when a  guard  instructed me that it was a restricted area. With that, I decided it was time for my interview. I did not have trouble finding Dr. Johns  office  as he had  well  directed me where to find it. I looked at my watch once again and realized that I was two minutes late for the interview. I was just about to knock at the door when suddenly someone behind me startled me. â€Å"Good morning, how can I help you?† I quickly turned to  meet  a tall black man and  quickly  offered out my hand. â€Å"You must be Dr. John?†Ã‚  I asked him with a big grin on my face and felt  ashamed  when I saw his name tag hung from the left pocket of his shirt.  He was just over my height, probably about 5’8† and casually dressed. After introducing myself, he welcomed me into his office. The office looked spacious and well organized. His desk was parallel with the West wall of the building, and there was a vase on top, but the flowers residing there appeared to have started dying days beforehand.  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Have a seat please, and what can I  order  for  you?† he asked me as he motioned me to a cozy seat next to his desk. â€Å"Thank you, I will be  fine† I answered as I took the  seat  and got out my pen ready to start my  interview.  I explained to him why I needed the  interview  and he seemed all hears as he nodded while staring at my notebook as if he could  read  whatever I was jotting down already.  I decided to  start  the  interview  immediately  since I knew how busy his  schedule  was. Dr John started by telling me that he believed he was the busiest  employee  at St. Mary hospital. â€Å"There are two types of administrators† he began while rotating his  executive  looking pen between his two hands.  Ã¢â‚¬Å"We have generalists and

Monday, February 3, 2020

Are Children More Socialized because of the Internet Research Paper

Are Children More Socialized because of the Internet - Research Paper Example This paper illustrates that the number of children Internet users globally is anticipated to grow from approximately 150 million presently, to 300 million by 2020. This is according to an estimate by IDC. Under these estimates, the greatest growth will be in South America and Asia. This paper inquires regarding children's internet usage, explores the level of children's exposure to internet content and detects the potential difference between whatever parents think their children are doing online and their children's real activities. A rising number of children have access to the Internet. Children in most U.S. households have online subscriptions. Furthermore, in almost half of the probable number of homes, children have Internet access. Parents believe that personal computer use and internet develops children’s analytical skills, significant abilities, and academic perspective. This has improved children’s access to the personal computer and the Internet. Observers al so point out that home personal computers and Internet access may boost children’s computer literacy and technical knowledge and affect their actions, behaviors, and associations. Affonso indicates that students extend the capability to manage in a technical environment, acquiring the awareness and skills needed to be useful, as demanded by the present computer-driven society. Furthermore, online etiquette has become an essential part of the technology-based curriculum. The lasting impacts of this change have however been questioned in the essence of a rumor of its pessimistic influence on societal functioning and rising reports linking psychologically addictive characteristics to Internet use. Psychologists and educators have raised a lot of concerns about the influence of the Internet on the collective skills and psychological comfort of children.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

A Successful Global Strategy

A Successful Global Strategy Executive Summary: This Report outlines how Walt Disney did successfully in global strategy. We found that the root issues include the need to expand into new markets and/or industries. We used a Porters Five Forces analysis to develop the alternatives. The alternatives that we proposed were to expand globally and enter the China makret. We analysed how the alternatives fit with Disneys corporate culture if the alternative would provide a competitive advantage. Upon the completion of our analysis, we recommend that Disney should expand globally in order to capitalise on unrealised markets in order to alleviate its root issues. 1. Introduction The Walt Disney Company, also known simply asDisney, is the largest media and entertainment conglomerate in the world. (http://money.cnn.com) The Walt Disney Company, together with its subsidiaries and affiliates, is a leading diversified international family entertainment and media enterprise with four business segments: Media Networks, which includes the companys television and Internet operations; Parks and Resorts that featuring the companys theme parks,cruise line, and other travel-related assets; Studio Entertainment, which includes the companys film, recording label, and theatrical divisions; and Consumer Products, which produces toys, clothing, and other merchandising based upon Disney-owned properties. (http://corporate.disney.go.com) A strategic analysis of The Walt Disney Company will be conducted to explore the globalisation aspects of strategy within the organisation. Relevant theoretical frameworks and empirical information will be used to assess the viability of Disneys current global strategy and recommendations will be made if any appropriate changes should be considered. The Five Forces Model will be used in the report to analyse the competitive advantage of Disney. The Walt Disney Companys objective is to be one of the worlds leading producers and providers of entertainment and information, using its portfolio of brands to differentiate its content, services and consumer products. The Companys primary financial goals are to maximize earnings and cash flow, and to allocate capital profitably toward growth initiatives that will drive long-term shareholder value. (http://corporate.disney.go.com) It is influenced Disneys strategy towards making the company works globally. The following findings will analyse how Disney using taken a global approach in order to expand the business and will highlight areas of improvement and apply them into theoretical frameworks. And the issue will mainly focus on the plan of building a new Disneyland in Shanghai China 2. Findings 2.1 Current Strategy The current strategy of Disney is mainly depends or influenced by their mission statement that mentioned above: Be one of the worlds leading producers and providers The success of Disney is obvious, but how and why it was able to achievethat success is not as plain. The biggest strength of Disney as acompany, is really the firms `share of mind and it is also thecompanys strongest competitive advantage, or its economic moat. Toillustrate this, each one of us, after hearing the name `Disney willautomatically have something in mind an animated film, perhaps, or acharacter, or a theme park. No matter what that is, the association ismost likely a very positive one: One of entertainment, imagination, andperhaps a family setting. In contrast, the mention of Columbia Picturesor Universal Studios will not evoke the same type of response. However, their main global strategy is really in public eyes: building another theme park in Shanghai China. The Chinese government has approved plans for the Walt Disney Company to build a theme park in Shanghai, its first in mainland China. (http://news.bbc.co.uk) According to the Disney Annual Report (2009), they will remain focus on advancing their strategies objective of building the Companys position as a leader in the creation of high quality branded content and making Disney an even more prominent and successful provider of entertainment globally. 2.2 International composition and expansion According to Bob De Wit and Ron Meyer (2004), international composition is an international firm operates in two or more countries. When a firm starts up value adding activities in yet another country, it is called internationalisation. Disney is actually doing this to meet their goals. In 2005, Disney has opened the fifth theme park and it is located in Hong Kong China. It can see that there is a trend of Disney wants to do business in China. Disney has won approval to build a theme park in Shanghai after nearly 20 years of courting the Chinese government. l International Scope As everyone knows China is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, is a huge potential market for any foreign brand aiming to expand abroad. Shanghai, arguably the most international and diverse city in China. It will allow Disneyland to utilise the largest tourism resources in Eastern China for example sightseeing spots, tourism infrastructure. On the other hand, the world recession and other difficulties in the industry, Disneyland hasnt been doing well in recent years. Seeking a more profitable market is essential, and it is estimated that Shanghai Disneyland will attract 30 million visitors every year. (http://business.globaltimes.cn) l International distribution The international composition of firm also depends on how it has distributed its value-adding activities across the countries selected. In some firms, all national subsidiaries carry out similar activates and are of comparable size. For example RD, and production concentrated only in few countries. (Porter, 1986) At the moment, Disney and build 5 theme park in the world and they distributed in different part of the world. The cultural differences will affect how Disney works for the business. Mention about how to establish the foreign subsidiary, firm can work independently or joint venture with local player or foreign partner. This could refer to the theme park as a joint venture company the cost of inputs, the investment is not just for theme park, the park also includes a variety of capital costs, land costs, environmental costs, part of the regional transport infrastructure costs, relocation costs. And the joint venture partner for Shanghai Disney is the State-owned enterprises L ujiazui Group. (http://www.chinafinancialdaily.com) 2.3 Porters five forces framework of Disney Disney has a favourable marco-environment. Its microenvironment will be examined using Porters five forces model (Porter, 1980). This model seeks to measure the competitiveness of a company by reference to five forces: competitive rivalry; buyers; suppliers; potential entrants and substitutes. In the case of Disney, most of the major things bought such as the rides and buildings are one-off purchase. The suppliers that affect daily operation are food and beverage, fireworks etc. All these are replaceable and will not directly affected Disney competitive advantage. Secondly, the bargaining power of buyer is determined by the concentration of buyers and how much customers can impose pressure on volumes and margins. Lets take Hong Kong Disneyland as an example; their customers have relatively low bargaining power because the theme park is differentiated in its industry. So the threats from buyers are low. There is a direct competitor for Hong Kong Disneyland, Ocean Park. Most teenagers will prefer Ocean Park as the entry fee for Disneyland is almost US$24 more than Ocean Park. That is why Hong Kong Disneyland has steadily lost money since opening in 2005 (http://www.businessweek.com) However, there is a dilemma happen to Disney: there will be a greatest threat or opportunities for Disneyland overall as mention above, the proposals for the second Disneyland in China. This new Disneyland will be eight times bigger than the one in Hong Kong (Subler, 2008). So Disney faces a same brand competitor within Asia and competing in the same market. And the substitutes would affected by other leisure and retail industries. It is because in China, shop normally close at 10pm rather than 5/6pm in western countries. Customers might have other alternatives instead of theme park. Overall, the microenvironment analysed by Porters five forces has revealed that Disney has a competitive environment. 2.4 Localisation or Globalisation? When the Hong Kong Disneyland was under construction, it was reported that the design plan of this park had been reviewed by Feng Shui experts to bring prosperity and good luck. Now, Disney will set up its second theme park in China. Will Shanghai Disneyland contain more Chinese features? Should Disney stick to internationalised and standardised route or positively adopt the localisation strategy? According to the report from The Times (http://business.timesonline.co.uk), Disney said that Shanghai Disneyland will be a fantastic world with Chinese characteristics, including the Chinese food and the suggestions from Feng Shui experts in the design of the park.To address this possibility, the spokesman of Disney made this official statement: Shanghai will feature a Magic-Kingdom style, in keeping with its cousins in Asia, the U.S. and France. It will also have Chinese characteristics as a part of the localization process that is a part of the deal. 3. Conclusion After analysing the Walt Disney case, the current strategy for Disney is being one of the leading producers and providers of entertainment and information, using its portfolio of brands to differentiate its content, services and consumer products. And other strategy is made looking forward to build the sixth theme park in Shanghai China. They will need to consider how they work successfully in order to avoid making the same mistake of Hong Kong Disneyland. Though it is not a big mistake, the issue they need to concern would be how they operate the new Disneyland. Would they stick the Chinese feature in the theme park? Is localisation or globalisation better suit for the new Disneyland? Also, the Porters five force Model has shown that Disney has a competitive advantage to the microenvironment. No matter how they operate, the Walt Disney still has a high reputation in everyone heart. 4. Recommendation In order to make a better improvement for Disney in doing business globally, there are several points I would like to focus on and help Disney works efficiently. The managers of Disney are believed to have made up their minds between globalisation and localisation. But like the saying Disneylands construction will not be stopped if there is space for imagination, numerous guesses will haunt Shanghai Disneyland before it is finished.I would say localisation is not a bad thing. Disney should integrate the Chinese features into Shanghai Disneyland. Even the theme park can be called Disney Oriental Park. However, on the other hand for using the idea of globalisation, the special cultural characteristics would makes Disney become what it is. And too many local elements may exert negative influence upon its attraction power.Therefore, Both localisation and globalisation should focus on transferring the cultural elements into something needed by the industry chain. Also, for even more expansion, as everyone knows, the size of Hong Kong Disneyland and Paris Disneyland is relatively small comparing to other Disneyland. They still have room for further expansion. Such as Hong Kong, it is a right decision to expand the theme park further for the preparing of new opening of Shanghai Disneyland. Once they expand, they would not lose the competitive ability against the rival or internal competitors. Therefore, in my opinion, Disney has successful expand globally in order to capitalise on unrealised markets in order to alleviate its root issues. But there are still unforeseeable potential for Disney. So in short term, a carefully formulated brand strategy will be the key for Disneylands China dream to come true. 5. References: The Walt Disney Company Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Financial Report Bob De Wit and Ron Meyer (2004) Strategy, Process, Contentm Context, An international perspective, 3rd Edition, South-Western Cengage Learning Porter, M.E. (1980)Competitive Strategy, Free Press, New York, 1980. Company Overview http://corporate.disney.go.com/corporate/overview.html (Accessed: 10th Feb 2010) Why Disney wants DreamWorks http://money.cnn.com/2009/02/09/news/companies/disney_dreamworks.fortune/?postversion=2009020914 (Accessed: 21st Feb 2010) Disneyland approved for Shanghai http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8341570.stm (Accessed: 19th Feb 2010) Shanghai Disneyland on the Way http://www.gotoread.com/mag/13136/sarticle_32571.html (Accessed: 17th Feb 2010) Hong Kong Disneylands Future Is in Danger http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/mar2009/gb20090317_923737.htm (Accessed: 22nd Feb 2010) Mickey Mouse prepared to be Shanghaied as China opens up http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/leisure/article3498733.ece (Accessed: 15th Feb 2010) Disney Shanghai to gamble? http://www.chinafinancialdaily.com/financial/news/2009/12/10/11836/interpretation-of-the-disney-shanghai-suction-gold-journey-tourists-spend-about-600-yuan-per-capita-1.html (Accessed: 15th Feb 2010) Subler J. (2008), Shanghai applies to build its own Disneland: mayor, Reutoers, Online News 6th March 2008 Available from: http://www.reuters.com (Accessed: 17th Feb 2010)

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Mother- Tongue based Multilingual Education Essay

Transfer to the other languages once Filipino or English has been acquired to use these skills in thinking and articulating thought and Be used in the process of acquiring English and Filipino more effectively Social Development Maintains local language and culture while providing national/ international language acquisition and instruction Promotes learners’ integration into the national society without forcing them to sacrifice their linguistic and cultural heritage. Using the culture the child knows enabling immediate comprehension from which new concepts can be built- going form the known to the unknown. Academic Development Meaning based education that enables students to learn well with the understanding of what the teacher is saying. Be well prepared to enter and achieve well in the mainstream education system. Source: Gazette of the Philippines The WHY’s In an article by Cruz (2011) under grading P-Noy the country’s president Pres. â€Å"Noy Noy† Aquino said, â€Å"My view on this is larger than just the classroom. We should become tri- lingual as a country; Learn English well and connect to the world; Learn Filipino well and connect to our country; retain your mother tongue and connect to your heritage†. In light to the Legal basis in the 1987 Constitution (Article XIV Sec 7), For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law, English. The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein, and as supported by the  1987 Philippine Constitution (Article XXVII Sec 30) which states that the child has the right to an education and to learn and use the language of his family, and as strengthened by RA 8780 EECD Law (Sec 5a) which states that schools a nd institutions shall use the child’s first language as the medium of instruction and Education for all should enable everyone to speak in the vernacular, Filipino and English, RA 9155 or EFA/MDG. Under BESRA KRT 3, all persons beyond school- age regardless of their level of schooling should acquire the essential competence to be considered functionally literate in their mother tongue in Filipino or in English. Theories of Language and Cognition This new approach in education in the Philippines under the Mother- Tongue based education in the newly implemented K-12 program has so much promise when it comes to having a solid foundation in literacy with children and thus this would create a ripple effect as they progress in their succeeding years not only academically but also in life itself. There had been several studies and researches done showing the efficacy of using the majority’s mother tongue language in learning a minority language, and in the case of the Philippines it is a country that embraces several mother tongue languages according to Lewis, Simons, Fenig (2013) the country includes around 120- 170 identified mother tongues spoken in different parts of the country; the Department of Education in the Philippines has somehow introduced and currently approved 12 mother tongues to be used in each respective areas that use such mother tongue languages, the 12 identified major language or lingua are as follow: a ) Tagalog b) Kapampangan c) Pangasinense d) Iloko e) Bikol f) Cebuano g) Hiligaynon h) Waray i) Tausug j) Maguindanaoan k) Maranao; l) Chabacano. Even with the studies and researches done to prove that having a good foundation of the understanding of the mother- tongue language of the child, there is still a whole lot of questions that rose with regards to parents’ aspirations for their children to learn English as early as Kindergarten since most have the mentality that learning the English language and being able to use the language in daily basis not only in school but also in social gatherings, homes and play area would make their children more appealing and would excel academically. To answer those questions, enlighten peoples’ mentalities and  to clearly understand the underlying effect of the benefits mother tongue based education offers; let us first see the theories that would explain the scientific workings of language in several context. Under the theories of Language and Cognition as described by Cummin (1981) he clearly illustrated under the Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) that the basis for st udents to further learn a new language or L2 is the cognition and language fundamentals that student’s learned from their primary language or L1. In other words, if a student has a strong foundation and is competent in their L1, they are most likely to be competent in the acquisition of a second language, the L2. The Common Underlying Proficiency or CUP serves as the central operation system of both languages L1 and L2, Cummin (1981). In short, if there is comprehension on the water cycle in their L1, that formulated knowledge transfers to the comprehension of water cycle in another language or L2. In the Philippines’ case let us say that the water cycle as discussed in Bisaya (mother tongue used in Cebu) is learned it is of close certainty that learning the same context discussed in English (students’ L2) would also be learned by the students. Linguistic knowledge, as well as skills such as summarizing chapters, can also transfer between languages, Freeman & Freeman (2004). The results of many recent studies suggest that bilingualism can positively affect both intellectual and linguistic progress. These studies have reported that bilingual children exhibit a greater sensitivity to linguistic meanings and may be more flexible in their thinking than are monolingual children (Cumm ins and Swain, 1986; Diaz, 1986; Hakuta and Diaz, 1985; Ricciardelli, 1989). Most of these studies have investigated aspects of children’s metalinguistic development; in other words, children’s explicit knowledge about the structure and functions of language itself. Another concept under Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and consisting of the language skills that enables students to communicate in everyday social contexts at home or in group, Diaz- Rico & Weed (2006) and consists of more social cues, such as wave or a smile when a friend or acquaintance is seen, or a nod from a teacher or parent to affirm that the child is doing a good job. Since it is context embedded, L2 learners tend to develop it within 2 years; much more quickly than Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP). CALP can be seen of as academic, or school language and requires more complex thought  process such as categorizing and analyzing. It focuses more on â€Å"abstract and decontextualized† Diaz- Rico & Weed (2010), higher- order thinking skills are required from students in this aspect, since the lack of context clues that CALP provides, it can take up to five years for English Language Learners or L2 to develop. An important characteristic of the bilingual children in the more recent studies (conducted since the early 1960’s) is that, for the most part, they were developing what has been termed an additive form of bilingualism (Lambert, 1975); in other words, they were adding another language which is English as their second language to their repertory skills at no cost or disadvantage of their first language but instead these children were in the process of attaining high level of fluency and literacy in both of their two languages. To further develop such skills what teachers could do is to encourage students to keep reading stories, articles or animations in their native language for fun, or even talk about their day in school with their parents, guardians, friends and/ or social circle in their native language, and in order to allow for the development of BICS, teachers need to give students time to socialize throughout the school day. This time could be during a work time or even just at lunch and on the playground. Without many opportunities to communicate socially, English Language Learners will struggle with basic language development. In the aspect of the development of CALP in an English Language Learner is one that will take more time and thought on the part of the teacher. When introducing content-specific language in the classroom, it is helpful to provide student with visuals and realia as much as possible. Giving students the opportunity to visually picture the concept will aid their understanding. When the concept is more abstract, as is the case with more upper-leveled grades, resources such as charts, graphs and graphic organizers may be particularly helpful in the development of CALP. Cummins himself says that â€Å"not only does maintenance of L1 helps students to communicate with parents and grandparents in their families, and increase the collective linguistic competence of the entire society, it enhances the intellectual and academic resources of individual bilingual students†Ã‚  Cummins (2000). Children use language in social context, especially in building relationships, exchanging information, thinking and with the play of words and in communicating while learning. We know today that the ability to communicate is prior to linguistic development: before producing words to communicate, babies start to babble or show signs in order to communicate to their caregivers or family; then they start to name people and things around them to exchange information and make sense and meaning of the world they are in. As they continue to develop, their language develops and they become more sophisticated communicators; from then on their personality develops and when they go to school they start playing with other children and cooperating and use their language(s) to interact with peers and adults and to learn. Therefore, children need language to socialize, to communicate, to understand the world and to learn. As Harding and Riley (1986) write: â€Å"A child learning a language is learning about the world, about how it is organised and how it works. This is very different from the adult learning a second language who tends to work the other way round: he brings his world with him and uses the language to try to express it.† When placed in a bilingual or multilingual setting, children are going to learn in that context through their first language or L1 and that it is important to acknowledge several facts around L1: that is the language acquired from home and from birth to their social cir cle and it does not stop by the time children enter school. And that the additional language would not develop and progress similarly with L1 since L1 is already pre- existing. As a teacher, one should always remember that just because a student speaks English well on the playground, does not mean their CALP language is fluent. A teacher should encourage students to continue to read regularly in their native language, so that they can transfer these skills into English. As Cummins (2000) states: â€Å"Conceptual knowledge developed in one language helps to make input in the other language comprehensible. If a child already understands the concepts of â€Å"justice† or â€Å"honesty† in her own language, all she has to do is acquire the label for these terms in English. She has a far more difficult task, however, if she has to acquire both the label and the concept in her second language† Shoebottom (1996- 2012). Another tactic teachers can use is to allow students to work in groups with other who speak the same native language. Teachers could allow students to talk among  themselves, use pictures or dictionaries if they don’t understand something. Teach all students the vocabulary before starting an new unit, this can benefit the entire class. Never judge a student for not unde rstanding something taught to them in their L2. It had been noticeable that almost anywhere the minorities are taken for granted. They are expected, if not required to assimilate to the socio- political edifices, social practices, and the social standards which are mostly built by the majority. Even then the majority still treats them less than equal, if not less than human. And with regards to the minority in the aspect of language in the Philippines, this particular learning initiative is ideal to the schools who caters to disabled students and also to students who have special needs. And with this new program which is the MTB- MLE it is most likely to enhance and help them make meaning to the concepts and topics that are being introduced, it would eliminate one aspect of understanding the word, their only concern by then is understanding the concept since they already understand the language use in the introduction of the content, thus making it easier for them and making it personal and relatable. Since the aim of mainstreaming is to let students with special needs learn at par with regular students, this learning initiative would enhance that aim and would fully immerse students with special needs in the â€Å"regular world† it would also put them at par with the reality that regular students are in. This learning initiative would help these marginalized minorities through supporting the use of their mother tongue and helping them make sense of the words and the world they are in. In line with the salient features of this MTB- MLE learning initiative, this would be powerful in the development of their language literacy, thus providing them with a strong educational foundation on their first language and bridging it in learning another language either the Filipino language or the English language and also, enabling them to use both or all languages in their own discretion, and given that students with special needs find it challenging in transferring concepts and instantly making meaning on concepts compared to regular students, this learning initiative would put their mother tongue as their solid foundation in figuring out the meaning of  each topic and the concept introduced, making it less stressful and difficult. Another feature that was presented focused on Cognitive development of students and learners, and with MTB- MLE learning initiative it is based on the child or students’ own known environment and bridges their world to the wider world so as the concept of â€Å"Known to Unknown† and the build- up of higher order thinking skills as to where they are capable of doing, may it be figuring out money change, or deciding as to where the safest part of the road to cross; and the understanding concepts learned through their mother tongue would then be transferred in another language, and making it less confusing since there is already prior knowledge and familiarity o the concept. In the aspect of social development, since these minorities have difficulty with regards to their social skills, this learning initiative would enable them to make it less threatening and intimidating for them to engage themselves in social circles, practices and activities, may it be joining a person or two in the playground and engaging in a simple play or social gathering. MTB- MLE enables these students to use their known culture and enabling them to immediately comprehend social practices, activities and realities based on their known world outside those in school—their known world at home, encouraging them to interact and share what they usually do at home since the language used at home, is the same language used in school, activities and social practices in their learning environment. And the last salient feature discussed in this learning initiative is academic development, through MTB- MLE learning initiative, students with special needs are able to make meaning of what the teacher is saying since the language used is their mother tongue, the language most likely they use at home and are familiar to them. And also, it would allow this minority to be well prepared to achieve well in the mainstream education system as what most parents aspire their children to achieve. The learning experience of students with special needs would most likely be enhanced with this learning initiative since it is basing the acquisition of concepts, topics, context and ideas in their known language and allowing immediate acceptance to these concepts since the language used is already an experienced everyday activity. It would limit special needs students’ intimidation, threat and hesitation in engaging themselves socially, academically and emotionally, since they could clearly see that their fellow  students, as well as teachers are using the same known language with regards to teaching and learning, and putting them on the same standard as of the other regular students, also allowing the minimal feel on the difference of regular students and special needs students. This learning initiative would most likely encourage students to achieve more are would not make big concepts in different subjects intimidating since the language used are non- threatening to them, this would allow them to relate their everyday reality to the reality nationally, internationally and globally. Upon having a solid foundation on their mother tongue, students are also able to retain their local identity and national identity at the same time being able to find their global identity thus giving them a key to fully experience the world outside their known world through the help of worldwide web, media, and global activities. Though this learning initiative is very ideal to the marginalized minority which is towards students with special needs under mainstream program; this learning initiative poses a challenge to its proponents, especially the teachers, since being the product of the old education system which uses English as the medium of instruction and mother tongue was not in the picture in the whole education process, teachers would find it a constant challenge to cultivate their known mother tongue and use it in their teaching practices, learning once again how to write in their mother tongue at the same time being critical with the syntax and technicalities when it comes to the grammar in their mother tongue, since one could not directly translate English sentences to one’s mother tongue due to its arrangement and syntax. Teachers have to shift to what they have known, used and practiced in their education as well as their profession, it is a shift to learning and entertaining their mother tongue and incorporating it to their instruction; it would mean relearning terminologies and changes in outlines, instructional materials, resources, references, educational strategies and practices; these challenges are to be faced head on and demands consistency and result from stakeholders such as schools, parents, students and the government. This learning initiative is properly introduced and practiced, it would make a difference not only to the marginalized minority but also to the other students especially those who are struggling academically, and since theories involving L2 acquisition shows that having a solid foundation on L1 does not hinder any academic  performance rather than it supports and enhances the students understanding of concepts since the language used is their home language, the language that they have been familiar since birth, the language that they have learned to make meaning on this outside their academic world. The successful practice of this learning initiative would bring about better comprehending students, better learners, enhancement of higher order thinking skills, life skills and whole rounded learners. It would also promote unity in different localities in the same region, unity in schools and not having that glaring difference on status basing on the language spoken, unity in public a nd private school sectors, unity and uniformity in concepts taught. And as a teacher, I am moved to respond to this learning initiative by furthering and widening my skills and knowledge on my mother tongue since I personally am not confident to teach my mother tongue, since I grew up in an English speaking environment and in a family that used English in almost always at home. I am challenged to relearn my mother tongue and to have full command of my local language, and since the country is already adapting to MTB- MLE it is my responsibility as a future teacher to make into reality the aims and features of this learning initiative, making the learning experience personal to my future students and learners even if there are more than 30 students in a class, it is my responsibility to make sure that my future students would confidently be able to make sense and meaning to what I am conveying and saying with regards to teaching concepts, and also carry with it the encouragement for unity, uniformity and decrease the fear of being different in terms of understanding the language. Since this learning initiative is fairly a new concept to some, it is also my responsibility to share the beauty and its advantages, in the whole educational experience of a learner, it is my responsibility to make it known to others of the weight of such learning initiative in the enhancement and development of whole rounded learners and life- long learners. References Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA), 2010. BESRA Key Reform Thrust 3: Influential social institutions and key social processes are engaged by DepED to support national scale attainment of desired learning outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.fnf.org.ph/downloadables/Basic%20Education%20Sector%20Reform%20Agenda.pdf Cruz, Isagani 2011. Grading P- Noy. PhilSTAR.com the Filipino Global Community. Retrieved from http://www.philstar.com/education-and-home/708011/grading-p-noy Cummins, J. & Swain, M. (1986). Bilingualism in education: Aspects of theory, research and practice. London: Longman. Cummins, J. (1981) Bilingualism and minority language children. Ontario; Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Cummins, J. (2000) Language, Power and Pedgogy: Bilingual Children in the Crossfire. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Diaz, R. M. (1986). Bilingual cognitive development: Addressing three gaps in current research. Child Development, 56, 1376-1388. Dà ­az-Rico, L. T. & Weed, K. Z. (2006). The cross-cultural, language, and academic development handbook, fourth edition. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Diaz-Rico, L. T. & Weed, K. Z. (2010). The crosscultural language, and academic development handbook: A complete K-12 reference guide(4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Freeman, D. E. & Freeman, Y. S. (2004). Essential linguistics: What you need to know to teach reading, ESL, spelling, phonics, and grammar. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Hakuta, K. & Diaz, R. M. (1985). The relationship between degree of bilingualism and cognitive ability: A critical discussion and some new longitudinal data. In K. E. Nelson (Ed.), Children’s language, Vol. 5. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum. Harding, E. & Ri ley, P. 1986. The bilingual family: a handbook for parents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lambert, W. E. (1975). Culture and language as factors in learning and education. In A. Wolfgang (Ed.), Education of immigrant students. Toronto: O.I.S.E. Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) 2013. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com Official Gazette of the Philippines (n.d). K-12 Basic Education Program: Salient Features. Retrieved from http://www.gov.ph/k-12/#Features Philippine Constitution 1987, Article XIV Sec 7: Education, Science and Technology, Arts , Culture and Sports. Retrieved from http://www.lawphil.net/consti/cons1987.html Ricciardelli, L. (1989). Childhood bilingualism: Metalinguistic awareness

Friday, January 10, 2020

Heres What I Know About Apply Tecas Essay Samples Utdallas

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